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    • CommentRowNumber1.
    • CommentAuthorzskoda
    • CommentTimeFeb 20th 2019
    • (edited Feb 20th 2019)

    A stub created for smart contracts, primarily focus on the blockchain realization of the idea, with link to the wikipedia and smart contract (zoranskoda).

    v1, current

    • CommentRowNumber2.
    • CommentAuthorzskoda
    • CommentTimeFeb 20th 2019

    Now added a section on the languages and VM used.

    • CommentRowNumber3.
    • CommentAuthorDanil_a
    • CommentTimeFeb 21st 2019
    I think there is a bit of confusion about smart contracts with relation to blockchains. I agree with Fritz Henglein that "Smart contracts are neither" ( At least Ethereum-like smart contracts (written in Solidity). Although, there is a trend to implement smart contracts as programs in functional languages (plus some machinery for inter-contract communication). The examples of such developments are: Michelson ( for Tezos blockchain (and Liquidity that compiles to Michelson), Scilla (, Plutus ( This makes smart contracts a bit more "smart" in a sense that verification of properties becomes easier and it's harder to get things completely wrong. But this does not make them closer to "contracts", these languages are still fairly general-purpose.

    For example, what smart contracts cannot do: read data from the outer world, trigger off-chain events (of course, one can implement a "listener" for contract state, but this is not a contract responsibility), automatically execute transactions (only calls from outside of a blockchain can execute a program). This makes smart contracts more or less similar to stored procedures in databases. But of course, combining off-chain and on-chain computations, one can implement "real" smart contract that will capture certain business process/financial contract etc.
    • CommentRowNumber4.
    • CommentAuthorzskoda
    • CommentTimeFeb 21st 2019
    • (edited Feb 21st 2019)

    I agree. Indeed, I am among many who work on extending the applicability of blockchain smart contracts to off-chain events. On the other hand, thank you very much for additional references. I knew of some of them, but a couple of them are new to me.

    As far as functional languages, I had less time to list developments in those; so far they are sporadic in blockchain community usage.

    • CommentRowNumber5.
    • CommentAuthorDanil_a
    • CommentTimeFeb 21st 2019
    You are welcome, I'm glad you find some of my references useful :)

    Yes, this is true that functional languages are not very wide-spread in the blockchain community. But I think functional languages have good chances to be quite useful in this area because their semantics is well-studied. Type systems like variants of System F are expressive and yet give good safety guarantees. Moreover, some blockchains (like Tezos) directly interpret simple functional language instead of compiling it into byte-code(I guess, one can imagine something like just-in-time compilation for such languages).

    Here is another link that might be useful: Simplicity is a low-level Turing incomplete functional language, which can serve as a target to compile more high-level languages into it.
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