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The picture which slowly arises from the above considerations is that of the space-time gradually disappearing in the regions of large curvature. The natural description in this case is provided by a gauge theory in which the basic objects are the texts formed from the gauge-invariant words. The theory provides us with the expectation values assigned to the various texts, words and sentences.
These expectation values can be calculated either from the gauge theory or from the strongly coupled 2d sigma model. The coupling in this model is proportional to the target space curvature. This target space can be interpreted as a usual continuous space-time only when the curvature is small. As we increase the coupling, this interpretation becomes more and more fuzzy and finally completely meaningless.
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In summary, the “string of $Z$s” becomes the physical string and that each $Z$ carries one unit of $J$ which is one unit of $p_+$. Locality along the worldsheet of the string comes from the fact that planar diagrams allow only contractions of neighboring operators. So the Yang Mills theory gives a string bit model (see $[23]$) where each bit is a $Z$ operator.
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{#BeisertStaudacher03} Niklas Beisert, Matthias Staudacher, The $\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM Integrable Super Spin Chain, Nucl. Phys. B670:439-463, 2003 (arXiv:hep-th/0307042)
{#BeisertFrolovStaudacherTseytlin03} Niklas Beisert, Sergey Frolov, Matthias Staudacher, Arkady Tseytlin Precision Spectroscopy of AdS/CFT, JHEP 0310:037, 2003 (arXiv:hep-th/0308117)
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A. V. Belitsky, Volker Braun, A. S. Gorsky, G. P. Korchemsky, Integrability in QCD and beyond, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A19:4715-4788, 2004 (arXiv:hep-th/0407232)
Niklas Beisert, Luis Alday, Radu Roiban, Sakura Schafer-Nameki, Matthias Staudacher, Alessandro Torrielli, Arkady Tseytlin, et. al., Review of AdS/CFT Integrability: An Overview, Lett. Math. Phys. 99, 3 (2012) (arXiv:1012.3982)
Sounding almost mystical in #2.
But the point is that the “meaningless” in the last snetence in #2 only refers to the naive spacetime interpretation, while the upshot is that the remaining fuzzy geometry is precisely captured by the dual gauge theory!
It was more the first paragraph. The universe built up from “texts, words and sentences”.
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